By Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo
Among 1940 and 1945, millions of African american citizens migrated from the South to the East Bay zone of northern California looking for the social and monetary mobility that used to be linked to the region's increasing safety and its attractiveness for larger racial tolerance. Drawing on fifty oral interviews with migrants in addition to on archival and different written files, Abiding braveness examines the stories of the African American ladies who migrated west and outfitted groups there.Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo vividly exhibits how ladies made the transition from southern household and box paintings to jobs in an commercial, wartime economic climate. whilst, they have been suffering to maintain their households jointly, developing new families, and developing community-sustaining networks and associations. whereas white girls shouldered the double burden of salary hard work and house responsibilities, black girls confronted even larger demanding situations: discovering homes and colleges, finding church buildings and scientific companies, and contending with racism. via targeting girls, Lemke-Santangelo offers new views on the place and the way social switch happens and the way neighborhood is verified and maintained.
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Additional resources for Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community
B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington, and the social and political activities of club women. Many rural families not only had kin in southern cities but also maintained direct links to the North through relatives who had migrated there. Page 19 In larger cities and towns, black residents frequently established NAACP chapters; there were varying degrees of opposition from white residents, who viewed the organization as radical and incendiary. Willa Suddeth, whose working-class uncle worked on voter registration with the NAACP in Bossier City, Louisiana, prior to World War II, was told by local whites that "horses would be swimming in blood before black people voted" there.
I met most of my informants at East Bay senior centers and churches. After introducing myself and describing my project, I asked if anyone wished to be interviewed. Some interviews were conducted on the spot, and others in women's homes at a later date. All of my informants can be characterized as successful migrants. They were proud of their lives and willing to share their stories. They had worked hard at blue-collar or service-sector jobs, raised families, and managed to save for modest but comfortable retirements.
They also had to contend with white hostility toward black ownership. In at least one stateMississippiblack farmers were denied agricultural extension services, singled out by night riders, frequently denied credit to buy land, and sold overworked, infertile farms. These owners, however, could make their own decisions about what to produce, and they usually mixed cash crops with large subsistence gardens for home consumption. 19 Lacey Gray's family, for example, farmed eighty acres of corn, vegetables, cotton, cane, and fodder; raised chickens, cows, horses, and hogs; and owned their own gristmill and smokehouse.
Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East Bay community by Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo